The human microbiota corresponds to all microorganisms that have colonized the human body and inhabit organs such as the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract or vagina. The intestinal microbiota is the largest microbiota in the human body, both in terms of weight and composition, and refers to the dense population of bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract and particularly the colon.
What is the intestinal microbiota?
Why is diversity of the intestinal microbiota important?
The key role of a healthy intestinal microbiota is everyday more and more ascertained. It contributes to many aspects of human health via the metabolic activities of the several hundred species of which it is composed. Acting as a barrier against many harmful bacteria, a healthy and diverse microbiota plays a crucial role in prevention of life-threatening infections. It also contributes to the digestion of certain foods, the regulation of host metabolism, and increasingly appears as a precious ally to ensure optimal activity of the immune system.
Antibiotics and other drugs impacting the microbiota
When we take antibiotics orally, part of the dose is not absorbed and reaches the gastro-intestinal tract; similarly, a part of the antibiotic dose taken by injection is recycled through the liver, and excreted into the intestine with the bile. When those antibiotic residues reach the colon, they provoke a serious disruption of the intestinal microbiota: several bacterial populations are decimated whereas others (sometimes pathogenic and resistant to antibiotics) proliferate; this state is called dysbiosis. The intestinal microbiota balance is hence disturbed and may take weeks to months to fully recover, i.e. return to its original equilibrium. Other drugs are also known to disrupt the microbiota such as some anti-cancer chemotherapies.
Similarly to a damaged organ, a disrupted microbiota can no longer fulfil its physiological functions, leading to many adverse consequences including:
- Altered immunity and immune response
- Colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile
- Altered metabolism with increased risk of inflammation, metabolic syndrome, obesity,…
- Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance
Protecting the microbiota
- The medical community has well acknowledged today that preserving the microbiota balance and diversity during antibiotic treatments could prevent serious medical conditions such as C. difficile infections and graft-versus-host-disease. Maintaining a healthy microbiota could also prevent the selection and colonization of multi-resistant bacteria, and therefore limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and prevent subsequent life-threatening infections. Finally, it is anticipated that maintaining the microbiota equilibrium is a driver for long-term health, and could favor better outcomes for cancer patients treated with certain cancer therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Da Volterra develops innovative healthcare products with demonstrated benefits in protection of the intestinal microbiota during antibiotic treatments